By Luis B. Oliveira, Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky, Chris J. M. Verhoeven, Manuel M. Silva
The subsequent are a few good points of research and layout of Quadrature Oscillators make it various from the present literature on digital oscillators: (1) specialize in quadrature oscillators with exact quadrature and coffee phase-noise, required through smooth communique platforms; (2) an in depth comparative examine of quadrature LC and RC oscillators, together with cross-coupled LC quasi-sinusoidal oscillators, cross-coupled RC rest oscillators, a quadrature RC oscillator-mixer, and two-integrator oscillators; (3) an intensive research of the influence of mismatches at the phase-error and the phase-noise; (4) the belief that quadrature RC oscillators could be a useful replacement to LC oscillators whilst zone and price could be minimized (in cross-coupled RC oscillators either the quadrature-error and phase-noise are decreased, while in LC oscillators the coupling raises the phase-noise.
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Extra info for Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
The integration of the mixing function in quadrature oscillators has the advantage of relaxing these constraints, as will be shown in Chapter 4 of this book. In this section we review the most important characteristics of mixers: noise figure, second and third order intermodulation points, 1-dB compression point, gain, input and output impedance, and isolation between ports. Different types of implementations will be reviewed [1, 2]. 1 Performance Parameters of Mixers The noise factor (NF) is the ratio of the signal-to-noise ratios at the input and at the output.
Intermodulation distortion is the result of two or more signals interacting in a non linear device to produce additional unwanted signals. Two interacting signals will produce intermodulation products at the sum and difference of integer multiples of the original frequencies. For two input signals at frequencies f 1 and f 2 , the output components will have frequencies m f 1 ± n f 2 , where m and n are integers. The second and third-order intercept points (IP2 and IP3 ) can be defined for the input (IIP2 and IIP3 ), or for the output (OIP2 and OIP3 ), as represented in Fig.
2). Thus, we should substitute the integrator and the Schmitt trigger by simple circuits that ensure some correspondence between the high level and the circuit level. The integrator is implemented simply by a capacitor (Fig. 3); its input is the capacitor current (i C ) and the output is the capacitor voltage (νC ). This voltage is the input of the Schmitt-trigger (Fig. 4), the output of which is i C . The transfer characteristic of the Schmitt-trigger is shown is Fig. 4b. It is assumed that the switching occurs abruptly when the sign of νBE1 − νBE2 changes.
Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing) by Luis B. Oliveira, Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky, Chris J. M. Verhoeven, Manuel M. Silva