By J. Michael Martinez
Protecting the usual surroundings and selling sustainability became very important goals, yet attaining such targets provides myriad demanding situations for even the main dedicated environmentalist. American Environmentalism: Philosophy, background, and Public Policy examines even if competing pursuits may be reconciled whereas constructing constant, coherent, potent public coverage to control makes use of and safeguard of the typical atmosphere with out destroying the nationwide financial system. It then reports a number attainable solutions.
The ebook delves into key normative recommendations that undergird American views on nature by means of supplying an summary of philosophical recommendations present in the western highbrow culture, the presuppositions inherent in neoclassical economics, and anthropocentric (human-centered) and biocentric (earth-centered) positions on sustainability. It lines the evolution of attitudes approximately nature from the time of the traditional Greeks via Europeans within the heart a long time and the Renaissance, the Enlightenment and the yank Founders, the 19th and 20th centuries, and as much as the current. development in this origin, the writer examines the political panorama as non-governmental enterprises (NGOs), leaders, and executive officers fight to stability commercial improvement with environmental concerns.
Outrageous claims, foolish misrepresentations, bogus arguments, absurd contentions, and overblown prophesies of imminent calamities are bandied approximately via many events on both sides of the debate―industry spokespeople, elected representatives, unelected regulators, involved electorate, and environmental NGOs alike. In lieu of descending into this morass, the writer circumvents the silliness to discover the an important concerns via a extra targeted, disciplined procedure. instead of interact in acrimonious debate over trivialities, as so frequently happens within the context of "green" claims, he recasts the difficulty in a manner that gives a cohesive examine both sides. This attempt should be quixotic, yet how else to chop the Gordian knot?
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Extra info for American environmentalism: philosophy, history, and public policy
The norms can be discovered and tested as any empirical claim can be verified using scientific measures. Human conventions and institutions 10 ◾ American Environmentalism ground regimes, but they do not posit a claim superior to natural law. When a conflict occurs between “higher” natural law and the laws of man, the former must take precedence. S. Declaration of Independence and its assertion of self-evident truths that all men are created equal and possess inviolable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Paganism viewed human beings as spiritually one with nature. To fell a tree or dam a river was to risk enraging the higher power, whether that was construed as an amorphous Nature, with a capital “N,” or multiple cosmic deities. The goal was to tread lightly or risk the wrath of Nature striking back at her transgressors, as she sometimes did with violent weather and natural disasters. When Christianity supplanted Paganism in many parts of the world, the reverence of nature born of superstition and primitivism became a sign of the heathen.
Pleasure and good may be identical, but not necessarily so. Moore suggested that a value judgment such as “good” is an ambiguous concept that cannot be defined outside of a specific context. Different circumstances, backgrounds, and levels of understanding or access to information mean that individuals are always guessing 16 ◾ American Environmentalism at what choices and actions are desirable. Because the good cannot be known firsthand, “good” acts must be judged by examining consequences and determining whether they achieve a desired outcome.
American environmentalism: philosophy, history, and public policy by J. Michael Martinez