By Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
In Aerosol Optics, Alexander Kokhanovsky offers a complete overview of accessible ideas for the distant sensing of aerosols. even if more often than not satellite tv for pc distant sensing is taken into account, ground-based thoughts also are mentioned. The paintings is based at the stable foundation of radiative move conception, coupled with Maxwell concept for the calculation of the scattering homes of small debris. particularly, the writer describes thoughts for the choice of the column focus of aerosol debris and their optical sizing utilizing spaceborne optical instrumentation. nearly all of the suggestions defined during this ebook use a so-called "library method". this system depends the precalculated top-of-atmosphere reflectances (TOAR) for vaious atmospheric aerosol forms. The comparability of measured and calculated TOARS permits one to symbolize the optically-equivalent aerosol state.
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Extra info for Aerosol Optics: Light Absorption and Scattering by Particles in the Atmosphere
This absorption causes periodic heating and the subsequent expansion of the surrounding air at the modulation frequency (Pao, 1977). The practical use of the method is limited due to relatively low sensitivity and the use of inefficient light sources. However, important progress has been made in recent years to overcome the limitations of the technique (Lack, 2006). The diffuse transmittance method is based on the measurements of the diffuse transmitted flux. , 1999). Techniques based on the subtraction of scattering, for example, measured by a nephelometer, from extinction are valid only for the case of strong absorption.
008. where we assumed the azimuthal independence of scattering by an aerosol medium. 4 Scattering 33 etc. Clearly, these various characteristics are interrelated because they are determined by the same function pðhÞ. In particular, it follows for highly extended in the forward direction phase functions: g ¼ 1 À h2 =4. Andrews et al. (2006) gave the following parameterization of the asymmetry parameter with respect to b: g ¼ 0:9893 À 7:143889b3 þ 7:464439b2 À 3:96356b: This expression was derived for the special case of the Henyey–Greenstein (HG) phase function given as pð hÞ ¼ 1 X ð2j þ 1Þgj Pj ðcos hÞ j¼0 or in the closed form: pð hÞ ¼ 1 À g2 ð1 þ g2 À 2g cos hÞ3=2 : Here Pj ðcos hÞ is the Legendre polynomial.
This multidisciplinary nature of the radiative transfer theory and its applicability to a great range of physical problems is the most important underlying reason for great developments in the field achieved in the 20th century with contributions from scientists working in very diverse research fields. 2 The diffuse light intensity It is of advantage to represent the total light intensity in the following form: s ~ÀX ~ 0 Þ þ I ðs; W; fÞ It ðs; W; fÞ ¼ pI0 exp À dðX cos W0 where pI0 is the incident radiative flux per unit area normal to the beam.
Aerosol Optics: Light Absorption and Scattering by Particles in the Atmosphere by Alexander A. Kokhanovsky