By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
This quantity is the 3rd of a collection of 7 regarding photovoltaics. sunlight cell-related applied sciences lined the following comprise: ribbon silicon; heterojunction crystalline silicon; wafer similar crystalline silicon; and different complicated silicon sun mobile constructions and processes.
Semiconductors and Semimetals has extraordinary itself during the cautious choice of recognized authors, editors, and members. initially widely recognized because the "Willardson and Beer" sequence, it has succeeded in publishing a number of landmark volumes and chapters. The sequence publishes well timed, hugely suitable volumes meant for long term effect and reflecting the really interdisciplinary nature of the sector. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals were and may stay of serious curiosity to physicists, chemists, fabrics scientists, and equipment engineers in academia, medical laboratories and sleek industry.
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Additional info for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3,
2013b). , 2011). 5. ADVANCED EMITTER FORMATION The pn-junction can be described as the heart of a c-Si solar cell, as it is responsible for the separation of charge carriers. For emitter formation within the standard solar cell process with a B-doped p-type base and a P-doped n-type emitter several factors have to be considered, the most important ones are listed in the following. • j0e should be low enough to allow for high Voc values (see Eq. 24)19 • Rsheet should be low enough to provide good conductivity for lateral carrier transport toward the grid fingers • Surface concentration of P atoms should be high enough to allow contacting of the emitter via Ag paste • Surface concentration of P atoms and dead layer thickness should be low enough to minimize Auger recombination and increase blue response20 An optimization of emitter quality is therefore not a straightforward task, as the requirements listed above point in different directions.
2011). 3. Front contact metallization Although screen-printing is still the most reliable and cost-effective way of forming contacts in solar cell mass production, the standard Ag screenprinting technology has several drawbacks and challenges. 36 Giso Hahn and Sebastian Joos • • Poor aspect ratio resulting in shadowing losses Saturation current density is drastically increased at the metal/semiconductor interface • Relatively high contact resistivity between metal and semiconductor • Series resistance losses increase when solar cell is interconnected in the module (cell to module losses) In the following, new developments are presented, addressing the issues mentioned above.
The paste is placed on top of the screen and a squeegee moving horizontally without pressure on the screen fills the openings of the mesh uniformly with paste. In the next horizontal movement of the squeegee over the screen, it is pressed onto the screen with a defined pressure, pressing the screen locally against the wafer surface and pushing the paste from the filled areas onto the wafer surface. The screen snaps off from the wafer after the passing of the squeegee because of the screen tension (Fig.
Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3, by Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber