By Noam Lazebnik
Imaging of the fetus is the most typical ultrasound examine played. whereas such a lot reviews display little greater than a fit fetus, the facility to spot anomalies on the topic of the advance of the fetal mind and musculoskeletal method is important. integrated during this factor are articles at the use of ultrasound to diagnose cystic mind plenty, neural migration anomalies, and abnormalities of the skull, backbone, thorax, and higher and reduce extremities. the facility to observe those difficulties early could have a favorable impression at the process the being pregnant, in the course of supply, and postpartum.
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Additional info for Advanced Obstetrical Ultrasound: Fetal Brain, Spine, and Limb Abnormalities, An Issue of Ultrasound Clinics
Transvaginal 3D and doppler ultrasonography of the fetal brain. Semin Perinatol 2001;25(1):38–43. 16. Pooh RK, Pooh KH. The assessment of fetal brain morphology and circulation by transvaginal 3D sonography and power doppler. J Perinat Med 2002;30(1):48–56. 17. Chang CH, Yu CH, Ko HC, et al. Three-dimensional power doppler ultrasound for the assessment of the fetal brain blood flow in normal gestation. 18. Ji EK, Pretorius DH, Newton R, et al. Effects of ultrasound on maternal-fetal bonding: a comparison of two- and three-dimensional imaging.
This mode is not used frequently while imaging a brain during fetal neuroscan. It is an extremely useful mode, however, for detecting anomalies of the fetal face, which frequently are seen in cases of brain anomaly. Fig. 7 demonstrates the use of surface rendering in the detection of unilateral cleft lip. to retain only strong US echoes. Because weaker tissue echoes are suppressed and the bones usually provide the strongest echoes, images resemble x-ray pictures. This mode is helpful particularly for enhancing the evaluation of the skull in cases of microcephaly; skull defect, such as cephalocele; abnormality of the skull sutures; and evaluation of the fetal skeleton (eg, in examining the spine for neural tube defects).
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006;27(6):714–5. Kalache KD, Bamberg C, Proquitte´ H, et al. Threedimensional multi-slice view: new prospects for evaluation of congenital anomalies in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med 2006;25(8):1041–9. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Spina bifida fact sheet. ninds. htm. Accessed November 7, 2008. Erol B, Kusumi K, Lou B, et al. Etiology of congenital scoliosis. UPOJ 2002;15:37–42. McMaster MJ, David CV. Hemivertebra as a cause of scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1986;68:588–95.
Advanced Obstetrical Ultrasound: Fetal Brain, Spine, and Limb Abnormalities, An Issue of Ultrasound Clinics by Noam Lazebnik