By Guy F. Webster, Anthony V. Rawlings
Addressing essentially the most regularly encountered stipulations visible through the dermatologist, this resource analyzes the pathophysiology, evaluate, analysis, medical good points, and keep watch over of pimples. With full-color illustrations, this resource delves into the on hand therapies for tricky instances of zits and scarring and offers specialist discussions of administration regimens together with topical and systemic treatments, laser remedies, and new medicines.
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Additional resources for Acne and its therapy
Activation of PPARs regulates many of the lipid metabolic genes contained in peroxisomes, mitochondria, and microsomes, with the net effect of stimulating lipogenesis. Adipocytes, for example, are induced to differentiate and accumulate lipid through PPARg2. Therefore, there is interest in PPARs functioning as regulators of lipogenesis in sebocytes (134,135). Certainly in rat preputial sebocytes, PPARg is selectively expressed and has been implicated in the regulation of sebocyte differentiation (136).
Monounsaturated fatty acids of sebum have a double bond usually inserted at position D9. However, in human sebum there is an unusual placing of the double bond at D6 to produce sapienic acid. Sapienic acid is a very abundant and important monounsaturated fatty acid with 16-carbons and a cis double bond located at the sixth carbon from the carboxyl terminal. This fatty acid has been implicated in acne and is produced by an enzyme unique to sebaceous glands, the D6 desaturase, which has recently been isolated from human skin, and its expression is demonstrated in human sebaceous glands (79).
Cholesterol itself is a weak repressor of HMG CoA reductase, with the oxygenated cholesterol derivatives mediating suppression of the enzyme. Thus, low concentrations of 25-hydroxycholesterol (2 mg/mL) did not have an effect on squalene synthesis in sebocytes. However, synthesis was reduced by 65% by a 10-fold higher concentration of 25-hydroxycholesterol (73). Mevalonate, the end product of the reaction catalyzed by HMG CoA reductase, can downregulate the reaction and a structurally related compound, mevinolin (lovastatin), inhibits the synthesis of squalene and cholesterol in isolated sebaceous glands (74).
Acne and its therapy by Guy F. Webster, Anthony V. Rawlings